Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion Treatment

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What are Traumatic Brain Injury, Symptoms & Treatments?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when an external force injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury) or other features. A Head injury can involve damage to the scalp and skull.

Symptoms: TBI can cause physical, cognitive, social, emotional and behavioral symptoms with an outcome that can result in permanent disability or death.

Treatment (based on diagnosis): Physical Therapy, Speech Therapy, and Occupational Therapy can be ordered by the treating physician. Pain Management, Neuropsychology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Vision and Cardiology Specialist are other clinical specialty services commonly ordered for various treatment stages of TBI.

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Severity Classification of TBI

Brain injuries are broken down into Mild, Moderate and Severe classifications. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to grade a patient’s level of consciousness on a scale of 3-15 based on verbal, motor, and eye opening reactions to stimuli.

GCS

PTA

LOC

Mild

13-15

< 1 day

0-30 Minutes

Moderate

9-12

> 1 to < 7 days

> 30 min to < 24 hours

Severe

3-8

> 7 days

> 24 hours

What is a Concussion, Symptoms & Treatments?

Post concussion syndrome is a symptom that can affect the patient for weeks, months or a years or more after a concussion. A diagnosis may be made when symptoms resulting from a concussion that lasts for more than three months after an injury.Loss of consciousness is not required for a diagnosis

The condition is associated with a wide range of symptoms: physical, difficulty concentrating, psychological, emotional, and behavioral.

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Tools & Grading Scales to Determine Severity for Care & Treatment Plan

What are the symptoms to look for when determining results of a concussion:

Physical | Cognitive | Social | Emotional | Behavioral

Concussion Grading Scale (Comparison of historic concussion grading scales - not currently recommended for use by medical professionals)

Guidelines

Grade I

Grade II

Grade III

Cantu

Post traumatic amnesia < 30 minutes, no loss of consciousness

Loss of consciousness < 5 minutes or amnesia lasting 30 minutes-24 hours

Loss of consciousness > 5 minutes or amnesia > 24 hours

Moderate

Confusion, no loss of consciousness

Confusion, post-traumatic amnesia, no loss of consciousness

Any loss of consciousness

Severe

Confusion, symptoms last < 15 minutes, no loss of consciousness

Symptoms last < 15 minutes, no loss of consciousness

Loss of consciousness (llla, coma lasts seconds, lllb for minuts)

What are PTSD Symptoms and Treatments?

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as traffic collisions, sexual warfare, and traffic conditions.
  • Symptoms of PTSD usually are present within the 3 months after the traumatic event, but may not begin until years later.
  • The main treatment for people with PTSD is counseling and medication.
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TBI External Resources

  • Centre for NeuroSkills Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide-information about TBI, the rehabilitation process, current research, news stories and more.
  • National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury-catalog of books and videos on TBI. Also offers the opportunity for families to write in with questions about coping with TBI.
  • The Rehabilitation Research Center-information and activities of the Rehab Research Center, as well as large collection of easily-accessible online resources, including resource guides, education materials, newsletters and bulletin boards.
  • Shaken Baby Alliance-Learn about devastating effects of Shaken Baby Syndrome.
  • TBINet-Join one of their listservs and find support on this website.
  • Texas Traumatic Brain Injury Advisory Council Webpage-Allows visitors to learn about the TBIAC and Texas Brain Injury Project (BIP). Variety of resources for the state of Texas.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Program-Consists of a group of 17 programs across the United States that work to gather data on brain injury rehabilitation.

Our Specialty

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Physician Examination

A doctor using evidence for diagnosing a traumatic brain injury first by getting a history, conducting a physical exam, uses head CT (Computed tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) to definitively diagnose and obtain evidence of the extent of the injury.

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BI

Brain Injury (BI) occurs as a consequence of a sudden acceleration or deceleration within the cranium or by a complex combination of both movement and sudden impact.

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TBI

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when an external force injures the brain. There are various classifications that determine the severity of the injury to the brain.

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Concussion

Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as an head injury with a temporary loss of brain function.

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PTSD

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as traffic collision, sexual assault, warfare, and other threats on a person's life.