Traumatic Brain Injury
Frequently Asked Questions

What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when an external forces injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury) or other features. Head injury can involve damage to scalp and skull.

What are the symptoms of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

Symptoms: TBI can cause physical, cognitive, social, emotional and behavioral symptoms with outcome that can result in permanent disability or death.

What are the differences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Brain Injury (BI) and Concussion?​​

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when an external forces injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury) or other features. Head injury can involve damage to scalp and skull.

Brain Injury (BI)
A brain injury, on the other hand, can be the result of a head injury. Although the skull may not be injured, the brain is jostled back and forth inside the skull in a force strong enough to cause shearing and tearing of the nerves in the brain. Brain Injury (BI) by definition is injury to the brain that causes neurological dysregulation, meaning that the brain is not functioning properly. This can result in ongoing physical, emotional, and thinking problems.

Concussion
Concussion, also called mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is defined as a temporary disruption of brain function that results in an alteration or loss of consciousness, and one or more of the memory symptoms listed in the Concussion Symptoms table below. Concussions are the most common type of brain injury and occur from a variety of causes. They can cause many short-term and long-term problems, as well as a variety of

What are the treatments for post Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Brain Injury (BI) and Concussion?​​

Pharmacological treatments
Pharmacological treatment largely targets the neuropsychiatric sequalae of TBI, rather than providing any means of healing or repairing injury.

Cognitive rehabilitation
Cognitive rehabilitation now takes many forms and is often individualized to the particular needs of the patients. Protocols have been devised to remediate cognitive difficulties often encountered in those with TBI, such as impaired concentration, executive dysfunction, inattention, visual disturbances, memory dysfunction, and impaired language function.

Behavioral therapies
Behavioral remediation strategies to eliminate problematic behaviors following TBI have met with mixed success, most often in terms of the poor generalization of specific skills to the outside world.

Nutritional supplements
Nutritional supplements, herbs, and nootropics have been utilized for many years and are increasingly popular among the patient populations. There remains little clinical research on many of these agents, perhaps reflecting a lack of funding more than a lack of efficacy.

What are the medical services available for post Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Brain Injury (BI) and Concussion?​​

Pharmacological treatments
Pharmacological treatment largely targets the neuropsychiatric sequalae of TBI, rather than providing any means of healing or repairing injury.

Cognitive rehabilitation
Cognitive rehabilitation now takes many forms and is often individualized to the particular needs of the patients. Protocols have been devised to remediate cognitive difficulties often encountered in those with TBI, such as impaired concentration, executive dysfunction, inattention, visual disturbances, memory dysfunction, and impaired language function.

Behavioral therapies
Behavioral remediation strategies to eliminate problematic behaviors following TBI have met with mixed success, most often in terms of the poor generalization of specific skills to the outside world.

Nutritional supplements
Nutritional supplements, herbs, and nootropics have been utilized for many years and are increasingly popular among the patient populations. There remains little clinical research on many of these agents, perhaps reflecting a lack of funding more than a lack of efficacy.

Is there a link between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

Yes, however, in this sample it has been shown that PTSD does indeed occur in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. The two disorders are not mutually exclusive. However, PTSD occurs less frequently than in patients who have suffered more severe types of traumatic events. The duration of unconsciousness explains the variance and the low occurrence rates. Obviously, loss of consciousness has a protective effect with regard to the development of PTSD. Larger sample sizes would be needed to determine if loss of consciousness consistently prevents the development of PTSD.
Finally, it is of great importance for the clinician to be aware of the possibility of the development of PTSD, especially in patients who did not sustain severe organic brain damage. In certain cases, psychologically related symptoms may be erroneously attributed to organic causes.

What services are available in the community to help support patients and family dealing with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Brain Injury (BI) and Concussion?​
  • Continuum of Care
  • Inpatient Services
  • Brain Injury Responsiveness Program
  • Outpatient Services
  • Coordinated Outpatient Services